This page is dedicated to research that has been undertaken in to PROS.
Explanations of PROS:
- https://www.prosspectrum.com/pik3ca-related-overgrowth-spectrum/ *For doctors*
- Understanding PROS *For patients & families*
- Article from Ralitsa Madsen who works as a research scientist studying PIK3CA: https://dmm.biologists.org/content/14/3/dmm048939
Research papers in to PROS (PIK Related Overgrowth Spectrum)
- 2012: Somatic Mosaic Activating Mutations in PIK3CA Cause CLOVES Syndrome (FULL ARTICLE)
- 2012: Mosaic overgrowth with fibroadipose hyperplasia is caused by somatic activating mutations in PIK3CA (ABSTRACT ONLY)
- 2014: PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS): Diagnostic and Testing Eligibility Criteria, Differential Diagnosis, and Evaluation (FULL ARTICLE)
- 2014: Clinical delineation and natural history of the PIK3CA‐related overgrowth spectrum (FULL ARTICLE)
- 2015: Heterozygous expression of the oncogenic Pik3caH1047R mutation during murine development results in fatal embryonic and extraembryonic defects (FULL ARTICLE)
- 2015: Mouse models of human PIK3CA-related brain overgrowth have 1 acutely treatable epilepsy (FULL ARTICLE)
- 2016: Somatic activating mutations in Pik3ca cause sporadic venous malformations in mice and humans (ABSTRACT ONLY)
- 2016: Nephroblastomatosis or Wilms tumor in a fourth patient with a somatic PIK3CA mutation (FULL ARTICLE)
- 2016: PIK3CA-associated developmental disorders exhibit distinct classes of mutations with variable expression and tissue distribution (FULL ARTICLE)
- 2017: Molecular diagnosis of PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) in 162 patients and recommendations for genetic testing (FULL ARTICLE)
- 2017: Mosaic Disorders and the Taxonomy of Human Disease (FULL ARTICLE)
- 2017: Gene Editing With CRISPR-Cas9: The Next Step In Human Evolution Will Be Worth $25 Billion By 2030 (FULL ARTICLE)
- 2018: Gene edited human stem cells provide insights into early human development and complex growth disorder.
- 2018: Lessons for cancer drug treatment from tackling a non-cancerous overgrowth syndrome (FULL ARTICLE)
- 2018: PI3K/mTOR inhibition promotes the regression of experimental vascular malformations driven by PIK3CA-activating mutations (FULL ARTICLE)
- 2018: Cancer-AssociatedPIK3CAMutationsinOvergrowthDisorders (FULL ARTICLE)
- 2018: Targeted therapy in patients with PIK3CA-related overgrowth syndrome
- 2019: Oncogenic PIK3CA promotes cellular stemness in an allele dose-dependent manner (FULL ARTICLE)
- 2019: Alpelisib for PIK3CA-Mutated, Hormone Receptor–Positive Advanced Breast Cancer
- 2019: Report by Dr. R Madson from PI3K/PTEN pathway scientific meeting, July 2019
- 2020: PIK3CA vascular overgrowth syndromes, an update: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32692051/
- 2020: Rheumatoid Arthiritis & CLOVES – Rheumatoid Arthiritis & CLOVES Syndrome: A Tricky Diagnosis
- 2020: The effect of COVID on rare diseases
- 2020: First Radiobiological Characterization of Skin and Bone Cells from A Patient Suffering from the PI3KCA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS) Syndrome
- 2020: Living with PROS: Mandy’s story
- 2021: UK Rare Disease Framework This framework sets out a national vision on how the UK will improve the lives of those living with rare diseases.It outlines 4 high-level priorities for rare diseases in the UK over the next 5 years:
- Helping patients get a final diagnosis faster.
- Increasing awareness of rare diseases among healthcare professionals.
- Better coordination of care.
- Improving access to specialist care, treatments and drugs.
- 2021 The role of the PIK3CA gene in the development and aging of the brain
- 2021 Parliamentary debate on the UK Rare Disease Framework: https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2021-03-24/debates/AEC89552-D3AA-4BFE-BBC4-C2A984A994A6/UKRareDiseasesFramework
- 2021: Rare disease and the lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic: Rare disease and the lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic Highlights include:
Following cross-sector stakeholder discussion, three priority themes were identified under which evidence would be collated. These have subsequently been included as three of the four priorities highlighted by the UK Rare Diseases Framework.
Priority 1: helping patients get a final diagnosis faster.
Priority 2: coordination of care
Priority 3: improved access to specialist care, treatment and drugs
- 2021: A standard of care for individuals with PIK3CA-related disorders: An international expert consensus statement: A Standard of care for individuals with PIK3CA related disorders
Drug Trials for PROS (PIK Related Overgrowth Spectrum)
- The various cells in our bodies usually follow a particular lifespan, this is the same for the growth gene PIK3CA. A normal cell will undergo a rapid death should anything become altered or damaged.
- However, if through mutation this PIK3CA gene does not die or “switch off” they become known as “oncogenes.”
- This means that the gene has the potential to cause cancer & tumour progression. however, this does not seem to be common place in PROS patients.
- This link to cancer has led to an increase in research to find potential (non-invasive) treatment for cancer patients, but which could also benefit PROS patients.
- Conclusion of the study suggests that “Rapamycin is a drug that blocks a signalling process that happens downstream of PIK3CA, so it stops one of PIK3CA’s effects but does not block it at source,” explains lead author Dr Sandra Castillo (UCL Cancer Institute). “When we gave rapamycin to the mice, it showed clinical benefit, but in patients it can have serious side-effects and compromise the immune system”.
- ArQule announced that the first patient has been dosed in a company sponsored phase 1/2 trial with its AKT inhibitor, ARQ 092, in patients with Overgrowth Diseases driven by genetic alterations of the PI3K/AKT1 pathway. ARQ 092 is an orally available, selective pan-AKT inhibitor.
- Details of the study: “this is an open label, Phase 1/2 study of oral ARQ 092 (Miransertib) administered to subjects at least 2 years of age with PIK3CA-related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS) and Proteus syndrome (PS) (MOSAIC)”.
- Results indicated as follows: “calculated volumes of fatty overgrowth declined by approximately 15% on treatment. The patient has now completed 25 months of therapy with clinically stable disease and clear radiological improvement. Miransertib was well tolerated with no significant toxicities other than hyperlipidaemia comparable to lipid profile derangement previously noted on sirolimus therapy”.
- “Taselisib is a selective inhibitor of class I PI3Ks and has direct inhibitory activity of the p110α isoform with a Kiapp value of 0.29 nmol/l”. Unfortunately the trial was: “Terminated (In accordance with the protocol, following the occurrence of two SUSARs, the TOTEM trial was stopped early for safety reasons.)”
- Results from the trial suggest: “we demonstrated the following: (a) that PROS cells are dependent on AKT; (b) the advantage of inhibiting the pathway immediately downstream of PI3K to circumventing problems depending on multiple classes a PI3K kinases; and (c) that PROS patients benefit from inhibition of AKT rather than mTOR. Clinical development of ARQ 092 in PROS patients is on going in these patients.”
- Results showed: “BYL719 was used to treat nineteen patients with PROS. The drug improved the disease symptoms in all patients. Previously intractable vascular tumours became smaller, congestive heart failure was improved, hemihypertrophy was reduced, and scoliosis was attenuated. The treatment was not associated with any substantial side effects. In conclusion, this study provides the first direct evidence supporting PIK3CA inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy in patients with PROS.
- Results from this study offer the following thoughts: “This study suggests that low-dose sirolimus can modestly reduce overgrowth, but cautions that the side-effect profile is significant, mandating individualized risk–benefit evaluations for sirolimus treatment in PROS.”
- As a side note, I (Mandy Sellars) began taking Rapamycin a number of years ago with amazing results. Along with a combination of exercise & healthy eating, my overgrowth stopped & began to shrink. I lost around 4/5 stone in weight from my affected areas. Unfortunately my body became tolerant of the dosage I was taking & it was recommended not to increase the dose. Therefore, sadly I had to stop taking the medication & my overgrowth started to increase again.
- An overview of research in the UK from Professor R Semple.
- The purpose of the study is “to allow access to alpelisib for patients diagnosed with PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS) who fulfill certain eligibility criteria as specified in this document. The patient’s Treating Physician should follow the suggested treatment guidelines and comply with all local health authority regulations.”
- To reiterate, this drug is available on “compassionate use” only. Please speak to your specialist/consultant who will hopefully be able to help you with this.
- You can also contact Novartis for more information: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org
- This retrospective study aims to determine the effectiveness & safety of the drug Alpelisib. This was administered to patients through the “compassionate use” scheme for the treatment of PROS (PIK Related Overgrowth Spectrum)
- Results of this study should be available July/August 2020. Should the results be favourable, this could hopefully lead to medical trials of Alpelisib for PROS patients.
- PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum is characterized by increased cell proliferation.
- Strong activation of HSF1 is found in PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum fibroblasts.
- AKT inhibitors reduces HSF1 activation and HSF1-dependent gene transcription.
- HSF1 inhibition blocks the PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum proliferation.
- As there is currently no curative treatment for PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum, our results identify HSF1 as a new potential therapeutic target.
- Piqray (alpelisib) is the only treatment approved specifically to address PIK3CA mutation
- This is very promising for those living with a PIK3CA mutation that is causes overgrowth, trials are in the pipeline.
- Novartis has an ambitious development plan for the drug going forward. It’s preparing to file for approval in patients with a rare disorder called PIK3CA overgrowth syndrome.
- VT30-101 is a 2-part first-in-human trial of topically administered VT30 to subjects with cutaneous venous malformations, lymphatic malformations, or mixed venolymphatic malformations associated with PIK3CA or TEK mutations.
- VT30 is a PI3K-inhibitor prodrug, formulated as a topical gel and dispensed from a metered dose pump; administration is once or twice daily, applied to target-treatment area(s) on the skin.
- This is a prospective Phase II multi-center study with an upfront 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled period, and extension periods, to assess the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of alpelisib in pediatric and adult participants with PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS).
- Study start date: February 2, 2021
- For further information: mailto:email@example.com
2020: What is Apelisib
- We suspect that it is likely that the overall risk falls below 1%
- There is a clear need for further publication of known cases and collaboration among institutions, so the denominator of patients with PROS can be further adjusted to understand true WT risk in this population.
- In terms of current recommendations, tumor screening should be performed at the discretion of the provider based on the genetic change and clinical features of the PROS presentation, as well as the family perspective.
- Recently, this drug was used by us for one such case, that of a 29-year-old Canadian woman, and led to a spectacular response.
- During the last years, moreover, ~ 60 patients were treated for PROS with this drug under the care of Dr. Guillaume Canaud at Necker–Enfants Malades Hospital, and all have experienced regression over their overgrowths.
- PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum: animal model and drug discovery
- This review recapitulates the recent knowledge accumulation on overgrowth syndrome related to gain of function of the phosphoinositide3 kinase (PI3K)-alpha. These disorders, known as PIK3CA related overgrowth syndromes (PROS) are caused by somatic PIK3CA mutation occurring during embryogenesis. We summarize here the currently available animal models and new treatments undergoing development.
A review of mechanisms of disease across PIK3CA-related disorders with vascular manifestations.
- PIK3CA-related disorders include vascular malformations and overgrowth of various tissues that are caused by postzygotic, somatic variants in the gene encoding phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit alpha. These mutations result in activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. The goals of this review are to provide education on the underlying mechanism of disease for this group of rare conditions and to summarize recent advancements in the understanding of, as well as current and emerging treatment options for PIK3CA-related disorders.
- Management of patients with PIK3CA-related disorders requires a multidisciplinary approach. Further results from ongoing clinical studies of agents targeting the PI3K pathway are highly anticipated.
- Growth promoting variants in PIK3CA cause a spectrum of developmental disorders, depending on the developmental timing of the mutation and tissues involved. These phenotypically heterogeneous entities have been grouped as PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum disorders (PROS). Deep sequencing technologies have facilitated detection of low-level mosaic, often necessitating testing of tissues other than blood. Since clinical management practices vary considerably among healthcare professionals and services across different countries, a consensus on management guidelines is needed. Clinical heterogeneity within this spectrum leads to challenges in establishing management recommendations, which must be based on patient-specific considerations. Moreover, as most of these conditions are rare, affected families may lack access to the medical expertise that is needed to help address the multi-system and often complex medical issues seen with PROS. In March 2019, macrocephaly-capillary malformation (M-CM) patient organizations hosted an expert meeting in Manchester, United Kingdom, to help address these challenges with regards to M-CM syndrome. We have expanded the scope of this project to cover PROS and developed this consensus statement on the preferred approach for managing affected individuals based on our current knowledge.
Novartis announces findings from a real-world study of alpelisib demonstrating clinical benefit in people with PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS)
- PROS is a spectrum of rare disorders caused by PIK3CA mutations and is characterized by atypical, visible overgrowths and anomalies in blood vessels, the lymphatic system and other tissues.
- At 24 weeks, 38% of patients achieved ≥20% reduction in the volume of the PROS lesions assessed in the primary endpoint analysis; no patients experienced disease progression or death.
- Alpelisib is the first potential treatment to specifically address the root cause of PROS conditions.
- Gain-of-function mutations in the PIK3CA gene cause lymphatic malformations (LMs), genetic disorders characterized by vascular abnormalities causing pain, inflammation, and deformities. To identify potential treatments able to prevent LMs, Delestre et al. developed a genetic mouse model that recapitulates the main features of LMs and showed that the approved drug PIK3CA inhibitor alpelisib, used in oncology, prevented LMs, and increased survival. Alpelisib administration in six patients refractory to previous pharmacological or surgical approaches improved symptoms and reduced the volume of LMs. Although two patients developed adverse events potentially related to the treatment, the results suggest that inhibiting PIK3CA could be effective in treating LMs.
- ***This is a preprint and has not been peer reviewed. Data may be preliminary.***
- CLOVES syndrome is a rare congenital overgrowth disorder caused by mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) gene. It is part of the PIK3CA-related overgrowth syndrome (PROS) spectrum and its treatment is challenging. PROS malformations have traditionally been treated by surgery, but research into pharmacological treatments capable of blocking the PIK/AKT/mTOR pathway has increased over the past decade. Its favorable results in these settings suggest that its compassionate use in patients with PROS disorders could have clinical benefits. Another promising drug is Alpelisib, which is a selective inhibitor that competitively binds to the p110a subunit of PIK3 in the intracellular PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. A low dose of Alpelisib used on compassionate grounds was shown in an uncontrolled case series to have striking effects in a cohort of 19 PROS patients, several with life-threatening complications. Moreover, the low dose of Alpelisib provoked few side effects and did not impair linear growth of the often young patients. We present the case of a patient with CLOVES syndrome who was started on compassionate treatment with Alpelisib after surgical debulking of a cystic lymphangioma and treatment with sirolimus. This promising drug significantly reduced the size of the lymphangioma and prevented progression of the tissue overgrowth in the gluteal region. This case suggest that there may even be collateral benefits of low-dose PI3K inhibition beyond mitigating disease-specific features of PROS.
- A PI3Kα-selective inhibitor has recently been approved for use in breast tumors harboring mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding p110α. Preclinical studies have suggested that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway influences stemness, a dedifferentiation-related cellular phenotype associated with aggressive cancer. However, to date, no direct evidence for such a correlation has been demonstrated in human tumors. In two independent human breast cancer cohorts, encompassing nearly 3,000 tumor samples, transcriptional footprint-based analysis uncovered a positive linear association between transcriptionally-inferred PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling scores and stemness scores. Unexpectedly, stratification of tumors according to PIK3CA genotype revealed a “biphasic” relationship of mutant PIK3CA allele dosage with these scores. Relative to tumor samples without PIK3CA mutations, the presence of a single copy of a hotspot PIK3CA variant was associated with lower PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling and stemness scores, whereas the presence of multiple copies of PIK3CA hotspot mutations correlated with higher PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling and stemness scores. This observation was recapitulated in a human cell model of heterozygous and homozygous PIK3CAH1047R expression. Collectively, our analysis (1) provides evidence for a signaling strength-dependent PI3K-stemness relationship in human breast cancer; (2) supports evaluation of the potential benefit of patient stratification based on a combination of conventional PI3K pathway genetic information with transcriptomic indices of PI3K signaling activation.
- PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) includes rare genetic conditions due to gain-of-function mutations in the PIK3CA
There is no approved medical therapy for patients with PROS, and alpelisib, an approved PIK3CA inhibitor in oncology,
showed promising results in preclinical models and in patients. Here, we report for the first time the outcome of two infants
with PROS having life-threatening conditions treated with alpelisib (25 mg) and monitored with pharmacokinetics. Patient
1 was an 8-mo-old girl with voluminous vascular malformation. Patient 2 was a 9-mo-old boy presenting with asymmetrical
body overgrowth and right hemimegalencephaly with West syndrome. After 12 mo of follow-up, alpelisib treatment was
associated with improvement in signs and symptoms, morphological lesions and vascular anomalies in the two patients. No
adverse events were reported during the study. In this case series, pharmacological inhibition of PIK3CA with low-dose alpelisib
was feasible and associated with clinical improvements, including a smaller size of associated complex tissue malformations
and good tolerability.
- There was no significant association between the presence of PIK3CA mutations and the clinicopathological features of FAVA, suggesting that the PIK3CA gene is not necessarily involved in the onset of FAVA. FAVAs lacking PIK3CA mutations may be caused by other gene mutations that activate 4EBP1 and S6K1.
2022: Genotypes and phenotypes heterogeneity in PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum and overlapping conditions: 150 novel patients and systematic review of 1007 patients with PIK3CA pathogenetic variants
- We confirm that (1) molecular diagnostic yield increases when multiple tissues are tested and by enriching NGS panels with genes of overlapping ‘vascular’ phenotypes; (2) strongly activating PIK3CA variants are found in affected tissue, rarely in blood: conversely, weakly activating mutations more common in blood; (3) weakly activating variants correlate with CNS involvement, strong variants are more common in cases without; (4) patients with vascular malformations overlapping those of PROS can harbour variants in genes other than PIK3CA.
- CLOVES syndrome is a rare congenital overgrowth disorder caused by mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) gene. It is part of the PIK3CA-related overgrowth syndrome (PROS) spectrum and its treatment is challenging. PROS malformations have traditionally been treated by surgery, but research into pharmacological treatments capable of blocking the PIK/AKT/mTOR pathway has increased over the past decade. The results have been promising and suggest that compassionate use of these treatments in patients with PROS disorders could have clinical benefits. Another promising drug is alpelisib (BYL719), which is a selective inhibitor that competitively binds to the p110a subunit of PIK3 in the intracellular PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. Compassionate use of low-dose alpelisib had striking effects in an uncontrolled case series of 19 PROS patients, several with life-threatening complications. Moreover, there were few adverse effects and the treatment did not impair linear growth, despite the young age of many of the patients. We present the case of a patient with CLOVES syndrome who was started on compassionate treatment with alpelisib after surgical debulking of a cystic lymphangioma and treatment with sirolimus. This promising drug significantly reduced the size of the lymphangioma and prevented progression of the tissue overgrowth in the gluteal region. This case suggests that low-dose PI3K inhibition may provide collateral benefits that extend beyond mitigation of disease-specific features of PROS.
- Vijoice is first approved treatment to specifically address the root cause of PROS conditions in select patients 2 years of age and older1
- PROS is a spectrum of rare conditions and is characterized by atypical overgrowths and anomalies in blood vessels, the lymphatic system and other tissues2,3
- Approval based on real-world data from EPIK-P1 study, which showed patients treated with Vijoice experienced reduction in the size of PROS lesions and improvement of PROS-related signs and symptoms
- Novartis to offer robust patient support program that includes assistance to access medication, financial resources for eligible patients and continued education
- Males with VM involving or not involving the GU system may experience problems with sexual function and satisfaction. While prospective studies are needed to clarify the prevalence and extent of these symptoms, providers should be aware that such symptoms can occur in this patient population.
The goal of this report is to describe, through a series of 5 cases, the clinical response and safety of alpelisib (BYL719) use in children and adults with PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) disorders at our center.
We reviewed clinical records of 5 patients from October 2019 through September 2021 followed by the pediatric hematology and multidisciplinary vascular anomalies teams at the Monroe Carell Jr. Children’s Hospital at Vanderbilt (MCJCHV). All patients carried a clinical or genetic diagnosis of PROS and were treated with alpelisib provided by a Novartis managed access program.
We highlight improvement in reported symptoms, objective overgrowth measurements, and quality of life to varying degrees in all patients. We note dose-dependent hyperglycemia and gastrointestinal side effects in 2 of the 5 patients. No patients experienced any serious side effects.
This case series reports on the real-world use of PI3K-α inhibition in the management of PROS. Ongoing clinical trials will provide efficacy and safety data as these drugs become more widely used in patients with vascular anomalies and syndromes secondary to somatic PIK3CA mutations.
- Numerous agents targeting various phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway components, including PI3K, AKT and mTOR, have been tested in oncology clinical trials, resulting in regulatory approvals for the treatment of selected patients with breast cancer, certain other solid tumours or particular haematological malignancies. However, given the prominence of PI3K signalling in cancer and the crucial role of this pathway in linking cancer growth with metabolism, these clinical results could arguably be improved upon. In this Review, we discuss past and present efforts to overcome the somewhat limited clinical efficacy of PI3Kα pathway inhibitors, including optimization of inhibitor specificity, patient selection and biomarkers across cancer types, with a focus on breast cancer, as well as identification and abrogation of signalling-related and metabolic mechanisms of resistance, and interventions to improve management of prohibitive adverse events. We highlight the advantages and limitations of laboratory-based model systems used to study the PI3K pathway, and propose technologies and experimental inquiries to guide the future clinical deployment of PI3K pathway inhibitors in the treatment of cancer.
- Video from Guillaume Canaud, MD, PhD, of the Paris Descartes University, describes the clinical studies that led to the approval of alpelisib to treat persons with PiK3CA-related overgrowth syndrome (PROS).
- PROS disorders are driven by somatic, gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CA that result in hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. PROS encompasses a broad spectrum of overlapping phenotypes (including overgrowth and vascular malformations) that vary significantly in their severity; every case is unique, leading to different, complex experiences. Here, we aim to describe the PROS experience from the patients’ and caregivers’ points of view, from onset to diagnosis to treatment and support.
- Megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome is a rare multiple-malformation syndrome secondary to somatic activating mutations in the PI3K-AKT-MTOR pathway. This is included in a heterogeneous group of disorders, now defined “PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum”.
- Alpelisib is a α-selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor approved for treatment of postmenopausal women, and men, with hormone receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HER2–), PIK3CA-mutated, advanced breast cancer (ABC). Hyperglycemia is a common, on-target adverse effect that impairs treatment efficacy and increases the rate of treatment delays, dose reductions, and discontinuation. Currently, there are no clear guidelines on how to manage hyperglycemia due to alpelisib when metformin is not effective. In this case series, we review 3 subjects with ABC that developed hyperglycemia during alpelisib-fulvestrant therapy and were successfully managed with dietary and pharmacologic interventions. These cases provide anecdotal evidence to support the use of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and very low carbohydrate diets to minimize hyperglycemia during alpelisib therapy.
- PIK3CA-related overgrowth syndrome (PROS) include a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by segmental overgrowth secondary to somatic mosaic activating variants in PIK3CA. Segmental undergrowth is more uncommon and has been less studied but pathogenic variants in PIK3CA have also been found. With this in mind, we have noticed a group of patients with PROS that present an undergrowth component associated with their focal overgrowth.
- PIK3CA encodes the class I PI3Kα isoform and is frequently mutated in cancer. Activating mutations in PIK3CA also cause a range of congenital disorders featuring asymmetric tissue overgrowth, known as the PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS), with frequent vascular involvement. In PROS, PIK3CA mutations arise postzygotically, during embryonic development, leading to a mosaic body pattern distribution resulting in a variety of phenotypic features. A clear skewed pattern of overgrowth favoring some mesoderm-derived and ectoderm-derived tissues is observed but not understood. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the determinants of PIK3CA-related pathogenesis in PROS, including intrinsic factors such as cell lineage susceptibility and PIK3CA variant bias, and extrinsic factors, which refers to environmental modifiers. We also include a section on PIK3CA-related vascular malformations given that the vasculature is frequently affected in PROS. Increasing our biological understanding of PIK3CA mutations in PROS will contribute toward unraveling the onset and progression of these conditions and ultimately impact on their treatment. Given that PIK3CA mutations are similar in PROS and cancer, deeper insights into one will also inform about the other.
2022: Prime Standard _ _ Vijoice (alpelisib) Prior Authorization with Quantity Limit _ 8/18/2022 _ © Copyright Prime Therapeutics LLC. July 2022 All Rights Reserved Page 1 of 6 Vijoice (alpelisib) Prior Authorization with Quantity Limit
- Treatment of adult and pediatric patients 2 years of age and older with
severe manifestations of PIK3CA–Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS)
who require systemic therap
- Purpose: PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) conditions of the head and neck are treatment challenges. Traditionally, these conditions require multiple invasive interventions, with incomplete malformation removal, disfigurement, and possible dysfunction. Use of the PI3K inhibitor alpelisib, previously shown to be effective in PROS, has not been reported in PIK3CA-associated head and neck lymphatic malformations (HNLMs) or facial infiltrating lipomatosis (FIL). We describe prospective treatment of 5 children with PIK3CA-associated HNLMs or head and neck FIL with alpelisib monotherapy.
- Alpelisib decreased the need for surgery and led to improvements in performance status and disease-related signs and symptoms in pediatric patients with PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum disease who received treatment with the PI3K inhibitor under compassionate use.
The genetic features and treatment strategies of lateralized overgrowth have been elusive. We performed this study to analyze the genetic characteristics and treatment results of propranolol- or alpelisib-treated patients with lateralized overgrowth.
Fifteen patients with lateralized overgrowth were involved. Clinical characteristics and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) findings were evaluated. Targeted exome sequencing with a gene panel of affected tissue and peripheral white blood cells was performed. Propranolol was administered and treatment results were evaluated. The PIK3CA inhibitor alpelisib was prescribed via a managed access program.
The identified mutations were PIK3CA (n = 7), KRAS (n = 2), PTEN (n = 1), MAP2K3 (n = 1), GNAQ (n = 1), TBC1D4 (n = 1), and TEK (n = 1). Propranolol was prescribed in 12 patients, and 7 experienced mild improvement of symptoms. Alpelisib was prescribed in two patients with a PIK3CA mutation, and the reduction of proliferated masses after 1 year of treatment was proved by WB-MRI.
Targeted exome sequencing identified various genetic features of lateralized overgrowth. Propranolol could be applied as an adjuvant therapy for reducing vascular symptoms, but a PIK3CA inhibitor would be the primary therapeutic strategy for PIK3CA-related overgrowth syndrome.